Amphoteric Surfactant Ingredients or Chemicals
Description of Amphoteric Surfactant: surfactants (Surface Active Ingredients) are chemicals used to lower the surface tension between different substances. Almost all Surfactants have the same structure, a long, hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head. The tails are very similar in most surfactants, the difference lies mainly in the hydrophilic head. This head can either be nonionic, anionic, cationic or amphoteric. Whatever the structure, most surfactants work by creating micelles. These are small bubbles in which the surfactants have arranged themselves with their hydrophilic heads towards the solution, and the hydrophobic tail towards the center of the micelle. This traps particles inside and allows it to function like a cleaning agent.
Amphoteric surfactants have both a positive and a negative charge on their hydrophilic head. This means that how they function depends on the pH of the solution. Normally, in acidic solutions (pH<7) Amphoteric Surfactants are positively charged and therefore act like Cationic Surfactants. In alkaline solutions (pH>7) Amphoteric Surfactants are negatively charged, thus acting like Anionic Surfactants. Amphoteric surfactants are mainly used in Personal Care products like Shampoos and less so in cleaning applications. Common Amphoteric Surfactants are Betaines (Betaine CP38) and salt free Dipropionates (Dipropionate CI38).